مروری بر روش‌های مدرن تولید و ذخیره‌سازی هیدروژن و استفاده از آن به عنوان منبع انرژی پایدار

نوع مقاله : علمی-ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی مهندسی انرژی، دانشگاه صنعتی قوچان، قوچان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی شیمی و انرژی، دانشگاه صنعتی قوچان، قوچان، ایران

چکیده

با افزایش سطح رفاه و توسعه‏ ی اقتصادی جوامع، تامین انرژی پایدار به عنوان موتور محرک رشد به یکی از چالش‏ های اساسی بشر تبدیل شده است. در دهه‏ های اخیر مصرف بی رویه سوخت‏ های فسیلی نگرانی ‏هایی را در مورد امنیت انرژی و تغییرات آب و هوایی ایجاد کرده ‏است. از این رو استفاده از منابع انرژی تجدیدپذیر و پایدار در اولویت قرار گرفته ‏است. یکی از منابع انرژی تجدیدپذیر که از راندمان تبدیل بالایی برخوردار است فناوری هیدروژن و پیل سوختی می باشد. تولید انرژی الکتریکی از سایر منابع تجدیدپذیر نظیر باد، خورشید، برق ‏آبی و زمین‏ گرمایی به دلیل وابستگی به شرایط محیطی و اقلیمی دارای محدودیت‏ های متعددی هستند. در میان گزینه ‏های سبز معرفی شده، هیدروژن به دلیل فراوانی و تنوع منابع تولید، به گزینه ای منطبق بر مولفه ‏های توسعه پایدار برای تولید و ذخیره انرژی تبدیل شده است. هیدروژن به دلیل بهره ‏وری انرژی بالقوه بالا و تولید آلاینده های کم، یک حامل انرژی جذاب برای تولید انرژی الکتریکی و کاربردهای حمل و نقل محسوب می‏شود. در حال حاضر بخش اعظم (بیش از 90 درصد) هیدروژن موردنیاز از منابع هیدروکربنی تولید می شود. تقاضای جهانی برای مصرف هیدروژن در حدود 70 میلیون تن می باشد که بیش از 93 درصد آن صرف پالایش سوخت‏ های فسیلی و تولید مواد شیمیایی می‏ شود. در این پژوهش به بررسی فرایندهای مطرح در حوزه ‏ی تولید و ذخیره‏ سازی هیدروژن پرداخته شده‎است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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