مروری بر روش‌ها، شرایط، مواد اولیه و تکنولوژی‌های مختلف تولید بیودیزل

نوع مقاله : علمی-ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری انرژی‌های تجدید‌پذیر، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از منابع انرژی تجدیدپذیر امروزه به دلیل کاهش منابع سوخت­های فسیلی و افزایش آلایندگی­های زیست محیطی دارای اهمیت است. بیودیزل یکی از انواع انرژی­های تجدیدپذیر است. باید تا سال 2020،  20% از سوخت­های مورد استفاده از منابع تجدیدپذیر باشد، که بیودیزل یکی از مهمترین راهکارها برای تکمیل نمودن این انتخاب­ها و رسیدن به هدف می­باشد. بیودیزل به عنوان سوخت زیستی می­تواند در موتورهای دیزل در ترکیب با دیزل خالص استفاده شود و لذا منجر به بهبود شرایط احتراق و کاهش آلاینده­های انتشاری گردد. بیودیزل طی روش­های مختلف و فرآیندهای مختلف از مواد زیستی مختلف تهیه می­گردد، که این به پتانسیل منطقه مورد نظر و امکان دسترسی به منابع زیستی بستگی دارد. از سویی دیگر تکنولوژی مورد استفاده در تولید بیودیزل نیز دارای اهمیت است. با توجه به اینکه از چه تکنولوژی و مواد زیستی برای تولید بیودیزل استفاده می­شود، هزینه اقتصادی و بازده تولیدی حاصل می­گردد. بنابراین در مقابل افزایش درخواست برای تولید بیودیزل، ارائه روش مناسب برای تجاری سازی فرآیند تولید بیودیزل دارای اهمیت است. در این راستا در این پژوهش روش­های مختلف برای تولید بیودیزل از منابع مختلف بررسی می­گردد، تا روش مناسب برای دستیابی به فرآیند تولید بیودیزل حاصل گردد. براساس نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش تولید بیودیزل وابسته به شرایط و دسترسی به منابع زیستی اولیه دارد، ولی بطور کلی تولید بیودیزل از منابع غیرخوراکی و به همراه کاتالیزور قلیایی در فرآیند ترانس استریفیکاسیون دارای اهمیت تجاری است؛ به طوری که طی این روش بیودیزل با بازده بالا (حدود 98%) تولید می­شود و از لحاظ اقتصادی نیز در مقایسه با روش­های دیگر ارجحیت دارد.

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