سلول خورشیدی پلیمری: ابزاری نوین در تبدیل انرژی خورشیدی به انرژی الکتریکی

نوع مقاله: علمی-ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، شیمی تجزیه (الکتروشیمی)، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران

2 کارشناسی ارشد ، شیمی کاربردی، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، شیمی کاربردی، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران

چکیده

از میان انواع منابع انرژی تجدیدپذیر، خورشید بعنوان یک منبع بسیار مهم درنظر گرفته می­شود. سلول­های خورشیدی دستگاه­های فوتوولتائیک تبدیل کننده انرژی خورشید به انرژی الکتریکی می­باشند. درمیان انواع سلول­های خورشیدی شامل آلی و معدنی، سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری بدلیل ساخت آسان، انعطاف پذیری، سبک وزن بودن و هزینه ساخت پایین بسیار مورد توجه هستند. ساختار سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری شامل لایه فعالی می­باشد که بین دو الکترود آند و کاتد ساندویچ شده است. آند در سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری، معمولا ایندیوم قلع اکساید (ITO) می­باشد. امروزه محققان بدلیل کمبود منابع ایندیوم، قیمت بالا و پروسه تولید مشکل، بدنبال جایگزین کردن آن با مواد دیگر از جمله نانوساختارهای فلزی هستند. سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری که دارای آندی غیر از ITO هستند را سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری ITO-Free می­نامند. نانوسیم­های نقره، ترکیبات نویدبخشی در جایگزینی آند ITO می­باشند که دارای خصوصیات الکترودی و نوری مطلوبی هستند. این مقاله مروری، به معرفی انواع منابع انرژی، انرژی خورشیدی، سلول­های خورشیدی، ساختار سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری و مکانیزم عملکرد آن­ها، مواد جایگزین آند در این سلول­ها، سلول­های ITO-Free و نانوسیم­های نقره بعنوان جایگزینی موفق برای آند    می­پردازد. همچنین در انتها مقایسه­ای میان بازده تبدیل انرژی در سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری با آند ITO و سلول­های خورشیدی پلیمری فاقد ITO        می­پردازد.

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