مروری بر مطالعات رفتار باد به ویژه بر مناطق شهری

نوع مقاله: علمی-ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، مهندسی مکانیک، تبدیل انرژی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی، قزوین

2 استادیار، مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی، قزوین

چکیده

امروزه مطالعه رفتار باد در محیط­های شهری مانند مجتمع­های ساختمانی، شهرک­ها، شهرها و ساختمان­ها بلند­مرتبه در کانون توجه قرار گرفته است. بررسی اثر دینامیک باد بر محیط­های شهری و بطور متقابل اثر شهر بر رفتار و الگوی باد، موضوع اصلی این تحقیقات می­باشد .امروزه مدل­سازی جریان باد به کمک دینامیک سیالات محاسباتی و نرم­افزار­های آن مطالعه رفتار باد و جریان­های ناشی از آن، از در معماری محیط­های هندسه­های شهری مانند مجموعه­ای از  مجتمع­­های ساختمان­ها ساختمانی، شهر­ها، شهرک­ها و ساختمان­ها بلند­مرتبه هم­اکنون در کانون توجه قرار گرفته است. به دلیل اثرات محیط­های چیدمان مجموعه ساختمان­های شهری بر الگوی جریان باد[U1] ، مطالعه و شبیه­سازی آن بسیار حائز اهمیت می­باشد. در دهه­ی 1950 با توجه به ضعف     کامپیوتر­های موجود، توسعه­ی مطالعات تجربی و آزمایشگاهی و اندازه­گیری­های هواشناسی برای بهبود پیش­بینی عددی آب و هوا آغاز شد. در دهه­ی 1960 با توسعه و بهبود مدل­های عددی، معادلات ابتدایی و همچنین افزایش توان محاسباتی کامپیوتر­ها، مدل­سازی­ها با هندسه­ی پیچیده و دقت بیشتر آغاز شد. در  دهه­ی 1970 مدل­های متوسط­گیری شده­ی رینولدزی تلاطم برای شبیه­سازی ارائه گردیدند. به علت کارآمدی خوب، این مدل­ها نیز در علم دینامیک باد شهری مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. در ادامه در سال­های 1980 مدل­های عددی حل این معادلات توسعه یافتند. برای ارزیابی نتایج بدست آمده در دهه­ی 1990 مدل­های پیشرفته­ی تلاطم ارائه و با نتایج آزمایش تونل باد مقایسه گردید. در سال­های اخیر ارائه­ی مدل­های جدید عددی باعث ارتقاء دقت پیش­بینی الگوی جریان و دینامیک باد بر روی ساختمان­ها و به­ویژه در سطح عابرین پیاده شده است. در مطالعه­ی پیش­رو برخی از کاستی­های این مقوله ارائه شده است. همچنین مقالات مهم و تأثیر گذار 65 سال گذشته در علم شبیه­سازی جریان باد مرور شده است.



 [U1]علت اهمیت مطالعات جریان باد در محیط های شهری هم در چکیده و به طور کامل تر در مقدمه ذکر گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 

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